Hoofdstuk 4 Service Blueprint a Tool for Enhancing Service (gehele pdf in tekst)

With the global focus on service-led growth has come increased need for practical techniques for service innovation. Services are fluid, dynamic, experiential, and frequently -produced in real time by customers, employees, and technology, often with few static physical properties. However, most product innovation approaches focus on the design of relatively static products with physical properties. Thus, many of the invention and prototype design techniques used for physical goods and technologies do not work well for human and interactive services. This article describes one technique—service blueprinting—that has proven useful for service innovation. Service blueprinting is securely grounded in the customer’s experience and it allows the clear visualization of dynamic service processes. The technique is described in detail including real case examples that illustrate the value and breadth of its applications.

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Service Blueprint a Tool for Enhancing Service
Quality in Restaurant Business
Muhammed Zakir Hossain, Fabiha Enam, Saraj Farhana
Department of Business Studies, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
The paper analyses its
existing service blueprint along with recommends how
the restaurant can enhance its quality service as well as efficiency level. Based
on the semi
structured interview on the restaurant, a new service blueprint
has been redesigned which limits the present
and potential failure points in
the existing process. High participation level from the customer along with
service providers and employees will add a new value to the efficiency level of
the service quality.
Blueprint, Service, Service Process, Service Redesign,
Improvement, Restaurant
1. Introduction
Quality service is the critical factor facing restaurants today and it becomes vital
to achieve the success in restaurant business. To enhance service quality, service
blueprint may play a crucial role. The restaurant business all over the world is
growing in a significant manner due to the customer behavior on eating out [1].
Why customers visit the restaurant? It may be for many reasons but for sure the
best reason is to gain positive dining experience so restaurant service provider
needs to ensure highquality dining experience for customers [2]. Basically, cus-
tomers evaluate the satisfaction level of a service comparing with their previous
expectations [3]. Thus restaurant should identify customers service expectation
at the time of service performed [4]. Moreover, service blueprinting could be the
vital instrument to realize customer service expectations.
Service industries become the ultimate source of economic leadership for
most developed and developing countries in the past recent years [5]. It is evi-
dent from the recent trend of the economy that service industries are somehow
How to cite this paper:
Hossain, M.Z.,
Enam, F
. and Farhana, S. (2017)
Blueprint a Tool for Enhancing Service
lity in Restaurant Business
American Jour
nal of Industrial and Business Manage
, 919926.
June 4, 2017
July 10, 2017
July 13, 2017
Copyright © 201
7 by authors and
Research Publishing Inc.
This work
is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International
License (CC BY
Open Access
M. Z. Hossain et al.
providing social/personal services, transportation, finance, advertising, repair,
distribution, or communication support for manufacturing industries [6]. Hu-
man needs are multidimensional as result physical goods are not enough to
meet human needs, invisible services indeed. Therefore, new service design be-
comes a distinctive task for service professionals [7]. Moreover, from the service
oriented organization’s point of view, like restaurant, designing a service process
is a combination of physical and nonphysical components.
The ultimate aim of service design should be enhanced service quality, re-
tained existing customers, attracting potential customers and who has loyal and
positive attitude towards the company. In reference [8] Edvardsson (1997) sug-
gests that service designer should take account of customersexpectations in de-
signing each element of the service and to define how and what of service design
and help linking the customer needs and an organization’s strategic intent [9].
However, most of the firms desired to zerodefects service performance, but
the nature of service itself encounters such an environment where service failure
is almost inevitable [10]. An effective service blueprint can reduce the failures
and enhance service quality in a large extend.
Purpose of the Study
This paper aims to discuss the conceptual strategies about service blueprinting
and presents a reflection of those theories with a service design of a restaurant.
This paper also target to find out failure points to prevent the critical failures
from occurring and reduce the risk of service failures. Specific research objec-
tives are:
Discuss the conceptual framework of service design.
Present the service design of a real-world service organization.
Find key failure points and redesign the service process to solve them.
Lastly, the paper also tries to focus on possibilities of further improvement of
the service design by enhancing value cocreation. As the service organization,
one restaurant from Karlstad named “Wok Kitchen” is selected.
2. Conceptual Framework
2.1. Blueprinting
A service blueprint such a diagram that depicts all the related parties participates
in service delivery process [11]. Blueprinting is a key tool used to design new
service or to redesign existing ones, and it specifies in some details how the ser-
vice process should be constructed. To enrich service innovation and service de-
velopment service blueprint must be customers centric [12]. According to Love-
lock & Wirtz (2007) service process such an instrument of service, which depicts
the way, and the sequence of an operating system to create the value proposition
that been promised to customers [13]. Since the service process are mostly in-
tangible in nature so it is tough to visualize. Lovelock and Wirtz (2007) also
stated two important things to develop a Blueprint. First, require to focuses all
M. Z. Hossain et al.
the key points involved in creating and delivering the service, second, need to
specify the linkages between these points. The best way is to keep these activities
relatively aggregated in order to define the big picture. Afterwards, it might be
possible to refine the given activities by “drilling down” to reach higher levels of
detail [13].
The most important characteristics of service Blueprinting (Lovelock & Wirtz
2007) are:
It differentiates between what customers experience “front stage” and the ac-
tivities of employees and support processes “backstage”, where the customers
can’t see them.
It clarifies the interactions between customers and employees, and how back-
stage activities and systems support these interactions.
It gives managers the opportunity to identify potential fail points in the pro
cess, where there is a significant risk that things can go wrong and affect the
quality of the service.
2.2. Service Blueprinting for Existing Services
The Service Blueprinting procedure is appropriate for existing services. By illu-
strating and analyzing the current status of the service process, it is possible to
see areas of improvement within the service sequence. Creating visual represen-
tations aid process improvement by showing the flow and highlighting potential
points for incremental adjustment.
2.3. Components of Service Blueprints
Lovelock and Wirtz presented the key elements of the blueprint by an example
of a restaurant experience from a customer’s viewpoint. From the demonstrated
blueprint in their book, we can find the following major components for a blue-
print design [14]:
Customer Actions: all of the actions that customers participate in the service
delivery process.
Onstage/visible Contact Employee Actions: face to face interaction in between
the customers and employees.
Backstage/Invisible Contact Employee Actions: All the actions that conducted
by employees but invisible to customers.
Support Processes: All the tangibles that customers are exposed to that can in-
fluence their quality perceptions.
Physical Evidence: Finally, for each customer action, and every moment of
truth, the physical evidence that customers come in contact with is described at
the very top of the blueprint.
3. Methodology
The paper is based on classic and contemporary theories and researches on “ser-
vice management” and “service blueprinting.” A case study approach is followed
M. Z. Hossain et al.
which is qualitative in nature. For data collection, a semistructured interview
has been conducted. Semistructured interviews are often preceded by observa-
tion, informal and unstructured interviewing in order to allow the researchers to
develop a keen understanding of the topic of interest necessary for developing
relevant and meaningful semistructured questions. Semistructured interview-
ing is best used when researchers wont get more than one chance to interview
someone to collect data.
The semistructured interview guide provides a clear set of instructions for
interviewers and can provide reliable, comparable qualitative data.
4. Background of the Case
This paper has been prepared by focusing on the service processes of “Wok
Kitchen” restaurant’s Karlstad outlet, situated in the food court of “Mitticity”—a
very prominent shopping mall in the center of Karlstad City. “Wok Kitchen” is a
restaurant chain, which is doing business in Sweden since 1999. They have an
established and highly successful restaurant concept with a total of six restau-
rants in Sweden and an equal number in the United States. The selected organi-
zation for this paper is Wok Kitchen’s Karlstad outlet and we try to analyze its
service processes and depicting a blueprint from our practical experience.
As we mentioned earlier that the outlet is situated at the food court of Mittici-
ty, it uses the facility for its own customers. Therefore, for this analysis we will
use the food court as Wok Kitchen’s service ground. Wok Kitchen Karlstad’s
outlet contains about 40 tables between large and small size with about 120 seats,
which enables 120 persons to take their meals at a time during the working
hours all through the week. Wok Kitchen serves Chinese and Thai foods and the
price limit per package is between 59 to 89 SEK. They are serving heavy meal
packages with very reasonable pricing. The shopping mall is one of the busiest
places in the city, having heavy foot traffic throughout the day. The key target
market of the restaurant is the customers of the shopping mall and the people
who are working in nearby business concerns who look for regular lunch pack-
ages within a reasonable price. The restaurant provides selfservice for the cus-
tomers. Under the supervision of the manager, three employees work full time in
the restaurant; including a chef, an assistant chef, and front of house employee
who serves in the food delivery counter.
4.1. Case Study: Service Blueprint of Wok Kitchen:
Service Process Design
4.1.1. Physical Evidence
The restaurant has a good view and a good location as it is in the center of the
mall. They have also decorated the restaurant in a good manner that attracts the
customers and makes them feel better when they are eating. As is shown in Fig-
ure 1 customers can choose food items from the written menu board placed be-
side the cash counter, and can look to the food preparation and the foods availa-
ble at the counter what we can call visual menus. Customers can view others and
M. Z. Hossain et al.
Figure 1. Existing service blueprint of wok kitchen.
select the same food. Cash and cards both are accepted for payment. The restau-
rant provides its customers with trays, plates and other eating tools like the
spoon, folk, and knife. Music and lighting add some extra values to the envi-
ronment the customer experience while eating. The seating space enough to well
enough has tables for their customers to sit and eat. Before going, the customer
is required to take the tray and the leftovers to the trash counter.
4.1.2. Customer
Customer part of the blueprint describes the activities of the customer. As is
shown in Figure 1 the first step is the entrance of the customer. The customer
comes into the restaurant and places an order. When a customer comes to the
counter to place an order, the person on the cash counter greets him/her and
receives the order and makes two billsone for the customer and the other for
the delivery counter. The customer then pays the bill, and meanwhile, the deli-
very person arranges the food to serve. Within this period, the customer stands
in a queue at the delivery counter and waits for his/her turn as it is a selfservice
restaurant. After receiving the food the customer goes to a table and eats the
food and after eating he/she cleans the table and takes the trash to the trash
4.1.3. Contact
As is shown in Figure 1 this part presents the contact points between the cus-
tomer and the service employees. It can be divided into two stagesThe front
part and the back part. When a customer places an order at the cash counter, the
cashier makes two copies of the bill; one for the customer and the other for the
M. Z. Hossain et al.
delivery counter. As they always sell some specific food packages, the food is al-
ways ready and stocked at the delivery counter. The cash counter and the deli-
very counter always stays in contact with the kitchen assistants to ensure proper
supply of foods in the “delivery” or “serving” counter. Whenever any food item
is about to finish the kitchen assistants are informed and starts preparing the
food to deliver on time.
4.1.4. Support Services
As is shown in Figure 1 support service is the forth and the last part of the blue-
print that we designed for WOK Kitchen. The possession of the space is rented
from the shopping mall authority. It’s the first supporting element of the service
process. Next, to it, we presented maintenance of the restaurant and its equip-
, machinery, ovens, dishes, other kitchen items, material for the food
etc. There are specified suppliers for different raw materials who help to run the
supply chain smoothly by delivering on time. The back part of the restaurant
contains a storage space to keep the raw materials and other elements for cook-
4.2. Fail Points in the Process
Lovelock and Wirtz stated that, a good blueprint should draw attention to points
in service delivery where things are particularly at risk of going wrong. From a
customer viewpoint As is shown in Figure 1, we recognized two key failure
All of the Items presented in the “Menu Board” is not always available. The
available items differ day to day and usually, there is no sign or marks on the
Menu Board which Items are available for the day.
At pick hours, the queue often gets quite long, making the customers wait for
longer time span. As the customers wait to stand queue, it may cause serious
dissatisfaction from customers which might affect their perceived value of the
overall service.
4.3. Possible Solutions to the Fail Points (As Is Shown in Figure 2)
For fail point 1, a customized menu board might be introduced which can be
changed frequently. To serve this purpose, an electronic display showing all the
items can be set up which can be easily customized. If that is not possible at least,
some marks or signs should put to the menu board identifying the availability or
non availability of the items.
For fail point 2, one additional frontline employee can be appointed in the
delivery counter who will help to serve the food. This might be applied only in
pick hours also by recruiting employees on hourly payment basis. In that case,
good assessment of demand will be required.
4.4. Service Process Redesign
See Figure 2.
M. Z. Hossain et al.
Figure 2. Redesign service blueprint of wok kitchen.
4.5. Value CoCreation by the Customer
Focusing on the customerprovider relationship, we can say that Blueprinting
helps us to specify the customer’s role in delivering the services as it clarifies the
importance of this role. By conducting service Blueprinting we can analyze the
customer as a coproducer for the service and identify the level of customer par-
ticipation. Customer participation can be divided into three broad levels [13]:
a) Low participation level where employees and systems do all the work, and
products tend to be standardized.
b) Moderate participation level where customers inputs are required to assist the
provider in creating and delivering service and in providing a degree of cus-
c) High participation levels where customers work actively with the provider to
co-producer the service.
5. Conclusions
In our case, we see high participation levels of customers as they directly take
part in the service process and thus cocreate value along with the employees.
This system is good as the customers can get direct access to the service process
taking the active role in it.
However, the same customers may dislike the SelfService Technologies (SST)
when the system does not work smoothly [13]. So, considerations should be
given to the reliability of the system from the customer’s perspective; whether it
is working well and to which extent it is userfriendly. If this system does not
M. Z. Hossainet al.
save time, then we may need to rearrange the waiting points, get rid of the bot-
tlenecks, and try to invent some ways to cut some processes short. But some-
times, the service providers face ultimate failure of the system. Considering
those scenarios, some backup process should always be ready to fight the dis-
astrous situations.
[1] Thansettakij Newspaper, Marketing. 24 February 2012.
[2] Liang, R.D. and Zhang, J.S. (2012)The Effect of Service Interaction Orientation on
Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention: The Moderating Effect of Dining
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics
, 24, 153170.
[3] Johnston, R. (2005)Service Operations Management: From the Roots up.
tional Journal of Operations & Production Management
, 25, 12981308.
[4] Ford, R.and Heaton, C.P. (1999) Managing the Guest Experience in Hospitality.
Delmar Cengage Learning.
[5] Chuang, P.T. (2007)Combining Service Blueprint and FMEA for Service Design.
The Service Industries Journal
, 27, 91104.
[6] Ma, Q., Tseng, M.M. andYen, B. (2002) A Generic Model and Design Representa-
tion Technique of Service Products.
, 22, 1539.
[7] Fitzsimmons, J.A. and Fitzsimmons, M.J. (2001) Service Management: Operations
Strategy and Information Technology. 3rd Edition, McGrawHill Inc., Singapore
[8] Edvardsson, B. (1997)Quality in New Service Development: Key Concepts and a
Frame of Reference.
International Journal of Production Economics
, 52, 3146.
[9] Goldstein, S.M., Johnston, R., Duffy, J. andRao, J. (2002) The Service Concept: The
Missing Link in Service Design Research?
Journal of Operations management
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121134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S02726963(01)00090-0
[10] Mueller, R.D., Palmer, A., Mack, R. and McMullan, R. (2003) Service in the Restau-
rant Industry: An American and Irish Comparison of Service Failures and Recovery
International Journal of Hospitality Management
, 22, 395418.
[11] Shostack, L. (1984) Desing Services That Delivery.
Harvard Business Review
[12] Shostack, G.L. (1987)Service Positioning through Structural Change.
The Journal
of Marketing
, 3443. https://doi.org/10.2307/1251142
[13] Lovelock and Wirtz (2011)Services MarketingPeople, Technology, and Strategy.
7th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall.
[14] Bitner, M.J., Ostrom, A.L. andMorgan, F.N. (2008)Service Blueprinting: A Practi
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1402, #1402, hoofdstuk 14

#1304 Hoofdstuk 3 Amazon Business Canvas Model

Het Business Canvas Model van Amazon, we zien duidelijk warehouse als Cost structure, naast People en de digitale inrichting.

Amazon Business Model


#1304, 1304


Hoofdstuk 4: de 4 C’s (E-business Umfeld)


Commerce is een van de 4 C’s en omvat alle activiteiten binnen de E-business die direct eff ect hebben op de Sell-side van de marktplaats. Commerce draait ook om de identi fi cati e van de juiste Consument en zorgt samen met de C van Conversie en de C van Consument voor bijvoorbeeld het juiste aanbod in de juiste fase van de Customer Journey.

De C van Commerce en de stappen van de Customer Journey Mapping Consultant en docent Mike Hoogveld – bekend van boeken als The excellent customer journey experience en bestseller Agile managen – heeft een stappenplan ontwikkeld om een klantreis in kaart te brengen. Het
belangrijkste voordeel van de customer journey – als methodiek – is dat het de ervaring van klanten in beeld brengt. Anders dan een klassieke funnel die uitgaat van een beperkt aantal kanalen, brengt de journey de reis over alle beschikbare touchpoints in kaart. Denk aan touchpoints via kanalen als
het internet, de telefoon, service via Facebook of WhatsApp, de (online) winkel, bestelformulieren of adviesgesprekken. Deze contactmomenten worden ook moments of truth genoemd. Klanten gebruiken kanalen door elkaar (crosschannel). Organisaties zijn vaak in kanalen georganiseerd. Het
populaire proces van Customer Journey Mapping brengt de tekortkomingen en vooral de customer experience per fase in kaart om vervolgens beter en optimaler te maken.

Leg nu de journey stappen en kanalen visueel vast in een format. Gebruik
daarbij deze aandachtspunten:
1. Schrijf een korte omschrijving van iedere journey stap op een post-it
velletje, streef naar maximaal 10 stappen.
2. Plak deze daarna op een flipover of groot vel in de juiste
chronologische volgorde. Doe dit van links naar rechts. Maak
daaronder een tabel met voor iedere stap een kolom en 7 rijen.
3. Schrijf onder iedere stap welke kanalen hiervoor worden gebruikt.
4. Schrijf daar weer onder per kanaal wat de klanten en prospects doen, denken en voelen
5. Als er meerdere kanalen per stap zijn, splits de tabelcel dan van links naar rechts in meerdere cellen. Beschrijf alle plekken waar interactie is, dus ook een receptie, gebouw etc.
6. Schrijf vanuit klantperspectief in de spreektaal van de klant; gebruik geen jargon. Zorg dat het voor iedereen begrijpelijk is en de klant echt tot leven brengt.
7. Stel vast in hoeverre wat men denkt en doet positief of negatief is en omcirkel de betreffende cel in groen, geel of oranje.
8. Stel nu per stap of kanaal vast wat de ‘momenten van de waarheid’ zijn. Dit zijn de punten in de journey die allesbepalend zijn voor klanten en prospects. Zij beslissen daar of zij wel of niet verder
willen gaan met jouw onderneming in hun oriëntatie-/koop-/gebruiksproces. Niet alle interacties zijn cruciaal, beperk je tot die momenten die echt het verschil maken. Meestal zijn dit er maximaal
5. Deze verdienen je focus omdat ze volgens de 80/20-regel de
meeste impact hebben in het koopproces.
9. Plaats in de tabel een opvallend symbool bij ieder moment van de waarheid, denk bijvoorbeeld aan een ster of hart.
10. Beschrijf in de rij daaronder voor ieder kanaal per stap wat de
benodigde activiteiten zijn vanuit de organisatie om de klant/prospect optimaal tevreden te stellen.
11. Benoem in de rij daaronder welke KPI’s relevant zijn voor het doormeten van deze activiteiten.
12. Schrijf in de onderste rij welke aandachtspunten of verbetermogelijkheden er zijn per stap per kanaal.
13. Loop tot slot de hele uitwerking nog eens door en check deze op
logica, volledigheid, consistentie, praktisch nut, overtuigingskracht,

Bij de C van Channels of de mix van Channels, kunnen wij enerzijds denken aan de Buy-side in de vorm van distributi ekanalen, zoals winkels, supermarkten, shop-in-shops, vergelijkingssites, platf ormen en webshops. De 4 C’s richten zich vooral op de Sell-side van E-commerce acti viteiten waarbij
de Channels ook een betekenis krijgen in de vorm van de mediakanalen. Online kunnen het distributi ekanaal en mediakanaal samenvallen, zoals bij platf orms of social selling via bijvoorbeeld Facebook Commerce of Shoppable Instagram. In 2019 is platf orm Amazon begonnen met het online
aanbieden van virtual showrooms door het combineren van inspiratie.

De C van Conversie: De C van Conversie staat voor het continu-proces van het optimaliseren
van de mix van Channels, het Consumentengedrag en de boodschappen en uitingen rondom de touchpoints in de Customer Journey. Conversieoptimalisatie heeft direct impact op Commerce en gaat altijd gepaard met het in kaart brengen van de klantreis om zo de punten van verbetering inzichtelijk te maken.

Conversie-optimalisatie is een methode die staat voor de verschillende activiteiten die je kunt uitvoeren om de verhouding van bezoekers die een bepaalde actie (call to action) uitvoeren, zoals een aankoop of download, te kunnen verbeteren.




Hoofdstuk 4: REAN campagnemodel

Enkele insights die de barometer via www.consumerbarometer.com geeft
in het kader van de benadering via REAN:

  • De rol van de zoekmachine bij het uiteindelijke online kopen van producten. Zo wordt 62% van de hotelboekingen online gerealiseerd na gebruik van een zoekmachine.
  • Bij de aankoop van boeken is dit 25%, bij software 51% en mobiele telefoons eveneens 51%.
  • Het crossmediale gedrag in de fase van oriëntatie. Zo oriënteert
    32% zich online voor de aankoop van bioscoopkaartjes. 19% doet dit offline en 16% doet dit zowel online als offline.
  • Het kanaal waar de koop plaatsvindt. Zo worden in Nederland zakenreizen voor 75% en autoverzekeringen voor 57% via online kanalen verkocht, hotelovernachtingen voor 84%.